There are emirs, sultans, elected monarchs and even a grand duchy, but of the British monarchy, which also once ruled much of the world. The Vatican: Yes, the pope is considered the monarch of this European city-state. Monarchy was the prevalent form of government in the history of Europe throughout the Middle There remain, as of , twelve (12) sovereign monarchies in Europe. Of these, seven are kingdoms: Denmark, .. The current royal family, the House of Bernadotte, has reigned since The current monarch is Carl XVI History · Current monarchies · See also · References. How Europe's royalty is inter-related: Interactive chart shows fascinating family connections over the past 1, years. In European history there.